Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy
Ch 5 Stages of Treatment
This chapter describes the characteristics of the early, middle, and late stages of treatment. Each stage differs in the condition of clients, effective therapeutic strategies, and optimal leadership characteristics.
For example, in early treatment, clients can be emotionally fragile, ambivalent about relinquishing chemicals, and resistant to treatment. Thus, treatment strategies focus on immediate concerns: achieving abstinence, preventing relapse, and managing cravings.
Also, to establish a stable working group, a relatively active leader emphasizes therapeutic factors like hope, group cohesion, and universality. Emotionally charged factors, such as catharsis and reenactment of family of origin issues, are deferred until later in treatment.
In the middle, or action, stage of treatment, clients need the group's assistance in recognizing that their substance abuse causes many of their problems and blocks them from getting things they want.
As clients reluctantly sever their ties with substances, they need help managing their loss and finding healthy substitutes. Often, they need guidance in understanding and managing their emotional lives.
Late -stage treatment spends less time on substance abuse per se and turns toward identifying the treatment gains to be maintained and risks that remain. During this stage, members may focus on the issues of living, resolving guilt, reducing shame, and adopting a more introspective, relational view of themselves.
Adjustments To Make Treatment Appropriate
As clients move through different stages of recovery, treatment must move with them, changing therapeutic strategies and leadership roles with the condition of the clients.
These changes are vital since interventions that work well early in treatment may be ineffective, and even harmful, if applied in the same way later in treatment (Flores 2001).
Any discussion of intervention adjustments to make treatment appropriate at each stage, however, necessarily must be oversimplified for three reasons.
First, the stages of recovery and stages of treatment will not correspond perfectly for all people. Clients move in and out of recovery stages in a nonlinear process. A client may fall back, but not necessarily back to the beginning.
"After a return to substance use, clients usually revert to an earlier change stage - not always to maintenance or action, but more often to some level of contemplation. They may even become precontemplators again, temporarily unwilling or unable to try to change . . . [but] a recurrence of symptoms does not necessarily mean that a client has abandoned a commitment to change" (Center for Substance Abuse Treatment 1999b , p. 19). See chapters 2 and 3 for a discussion of the stages of change.
A return to drug use, properly handled, can even be instructive. With guidance, clients can learn to recognize the events and situations that trigger renewed substance use and regression to earlier stages of recovery.
This knowledge becomes helpful in subsequent attempts leading to eventual recovery. Client progress -regress -progress waves, however, require the counselor to constantly reevaluate where the client is in the recovery process, irrespective of the stage of treatment.
Second, adjustments in treatment are needed because progress through the stages of recovery is not timebound. There is no way to calculate how long any individual should require to resolve the issues that arise at any stage of recovery. The result is that different group members may achieve and be at different stages of recovery at the same time in the lifecycle of the group. The group leader, therefore, should use interventions that take the group as a whole into account.
Third, therapeutic interventions, meaning the acts of a clinician intended to promote healing, may not account for all (or any) of the change in a particular individual. Some people give up drugs or alcohol without undergoing treatment.
Thus, it is an error to assume that an individual is moving through stages of treatment because of assistance at every point from institutions and self -help groups.
To stand the best chance for meaningful intervention, a leader should determine where the individual best fits in his level of function, stance toward abstinence, and motivation to change. In short, generalizations about stages of treatment may not apply to every client in every group.
The Early Stage of Treatment
Condition of Clients in Early Treatment
In the early stage of treatment, clients may be in the precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, or early action stage of change, depending on the nature of the group. Regardless of their stage in early recovery, clients tend to be ambivalent about ending substance use.
Even those who sincerely intend to remain abstinent may have a tenuous commitment to recovery. Further, cognitive impairment from substances is at its most severe in these early stages of recovery, so clients tend to be rigid in their thinking and limited in their ability to solve problems.
To some scientists, it appears that the "addicted brain is abnormally conditioned, so that environmental cues surrounding drug use have become part of the addiction" (Leshner 1996, p. 47).
Typically, people who abuse substances do not enter treatment on their own. Some enter treatment due to health problems, others because they are referred or mandated by the legal system, employers, or family members (Milgram and Rubin 1992). Group members commonly are in extreme emotional turmoil, grappling with intense emotions such as guilt, shame, depression, and anger about entering treatment.
Even if clients have entered treatment voluntarily, they often harbor a desire for substances and a belief that they can return to recreational use once the present crisis subsides. At first, most clients comply with treatment expectations more from fear of consequences than from a sincere desire to stop drinking or using illicit drugs (Flores 1997; Johnson 1973).
Consequently, the group leader faces the challenge of treating resistant clients. In general, resistance presents in one of two ways. Some clients actively resist treatment. Others passively resist. They are outwardly cooperative and go to great lengths to give the impression of willing engagement in the treatment process, but their primary motivation is a desire to be free from external pressure. The group leader has the delicate task of exposing the motives behind the outward compliance.
The art of treating addiction in early treatment is in the defeat of denial and resistance, which almost all clients with addictions carry into treatment.
Group therapy is considered an effective modality for
. . .overcoming the resistance that characterizes addicts. A skilled group leader can facilitate members' confronting each other about their resistance. Such confrontation is useful because it is difficult for one addict to deceive another.
Because addicts usually have a history of adversarial relationships with authority figures, they are more likely to accept information from their peers than a group leader.
A group can also provide addicts with the opportunity for mutual aid and support; addicts who present for treatment are usually well connected to a dysfunctional subculture but socially isolated from healthy contacts (Milgram and Rubin 1992, p. 96).
Emphasis therefore is placed on acculturating clients into a new culture, the culture of recovery (Kemker et al. 1993).